Synthesis, Physiological Effects, and Degradation

Synthesis Insulin is produced in the pancreas and the Brockmann body (in some fish), and released when any of several stimuli are detected. These stimuli include the rise in plasma concentrations of amino acids and glucose resulting from the digestion of food.[47] Carbohydrates can be polymers of simple sugars or the simple sugars themselves. If the carbohydrates include glucose, […]

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as just diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time.[11] Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst and increased appetite.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many health complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, damage to the nerves, damage to the eyes and cognitive impairment.[2][5] Diabetes […]

Insulin

Insulin (/ˈɪn.sjʊ.lɪn/,[5][6] from Latin insula, ‘island’) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.[7] It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of glucose from the blood into liver, fat and skeletal muscle cells.[8] In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both.[8] Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high […]

The structure of insulin

The structure of insulin. The left side is a space-filling model of the insulin monomer, believed to be biologically active. Carbon is green, hydrogen white, oxygen red, and nitrogen blue. On the right side is a ribbon diagram of the insulin hexamer, believed to be the stored form. A monomer unit is highlighted with the A chain in blue and the B chain in cyan. Yellow […]

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